Tag Archives: obesity

Freezing the ‘Hunger Nerve’ May Help Weight Loss

A new weight loss study being conducted by doctors uses gas to freeze a nerve in the back that sends hunger signals to the brain, reducing the patient’s appetite and aiding weight loss.

Hunger Nerve

According to a new study, freezing the hunger nerve may promote weight loss. Photo by News Health

This study was presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting, that included ten people with obesity and a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 37.

“We developed this treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate obesity to reduce the attrition that is common with weight-loss efforts,” said Dr. David Prologo, the study’s lead author and an interventional radiologist at Emory University School of Medicine. “We are trying to help people succeed with their own attempts to lose weight.”

During the study, women and men were put under sedation while doctors inserted a needle into their backs controlled by a CT scan. The needle was guided to the posterior vagal trunk, then the needle and surrounding nerve was froze. The procedure corrupts part of the nerve connected to the brain and stops the connection between the two. The process is painless and only takes 30 minutes.

All of the patients reported a decrease in appetite. The average weight loss was 3.6 percent after 90 days and the average loss of excess BMI was 14 percent.

Many weight loss programs fail because they are hard to follow and people just have trouble controlling their appetite. With this nerve-freezing study, the hunger signal to the brain can be weakened, providing a solution to mild obesity.

This is not a permanent procedure, however. The nerve will fully grow back in one year and to follow up on this study, more subjects will have to be tested in a clinical trial

Source: Lardieri, A. “New Weight Loss Procedure Freezes Hunger Nerves to Brain” 21 March 2018 www.usnews.com

Leeman Taylor
B.S. Criminal Justice

Counting Calories May Not Be Key to Weight Loss, Study

If you have ever been on a diet, you know that the formula for weight loss is to limit the amount of calories you intake.

Counting Calories

If you eat quality foods you can still lose weight without counting calories, study. Photo by Diet Doctor

According to a new study, published in JAMA, that advice may not be so relevant. It found that individuals who reduced refined grains, processed foods and added sugar while focusing on eating whole foods and plenty of vegetables — without stressing about limiting portion sizes or counting calories — lost a good amount of pounds over a year.

The plan worked whether they followed diets that were low in carbs or low in fat. Also, their results were not affected by genetics or insulin-response to carbs. The findings bring support to the fact that quality, not quantity is what really helps people lose and maintain their weight for long term.

This should encourage Americans to focus more on eliminating processed foods that contain refined starches and added sugar like refined flour, sugary snacks and white bread instead of calorie counting.

The study was led by Christopher D. Gardner, the director of nutrition studies at the Stanford Prevention Research Center. During research, 600 overweight or obese people were split into two groups, “healthy” low carb and “healthy low fat. Both members attended classes with dietitians where they were trained to eat nutrient-dense, less processed whole foods, prepared at home whenever possible.

The low-fat group was encouraged eat oats, brown rice, fresh fruits, legumes and low-fat dairy products. The low-fat group was trained to eat salmon, hard cheese, vegetables, grass-fed and pasture-raised animal foods.

Unlike previous studies, this one did not set restrictive carb or fat limits but instead emphasize that they focus eating whole or “real” foods. “The unique thing is that we didn’t ever set a number for them to follow,” Dr. Gardner said.

Obviously, many dieters do regain the weight they lose, and this study cannot determine if the participants will maintain their new habits. There was a large variability in both groups although people on average lost a significant amount of weight. Some gained weight and others lost 50 to 60 pounds. The ones who lost the most weight reported that the study “changed their relationship with food.”

I think keeping track of everything you eat while trying to burn all those calories with physical activity is very stressful and in the long run, you give up. I believe that focusing on high quality foods is a much better approach.

Dr. Gardner said many of the people in the study were surprised — and relieved — that they did not have to restrict or even think about calories.

“A couple weeks into the study people were asking when we were going to tell them how many calories to cut back on,” he said. “And months into the study they said, ‘Thank you! We’ve had to do that so many times in the past.’”

After one year, the low-carb group lost an average of 13 pounds, while those in the low-fat group lost about 12 pounds. Both groups also saw improvements in blood pressure and blood sugar levels, body fat and waist sizes.

Researchers took DNA samples and analyzed genetic variants to find out that it did not affect their responses to the diets.

The most important thing about this study is to focus more on diet quality and not tracking how many calories you have consumed. If you eat more whole foods, vegetables, less added sugar and less refined grains, you can really increase your chances of weight loss.

Gardner CD, Trepanowski JF, Del Gobbo LC, Hauser ME, Rigdon J, Ioannidis JPA, Desai M, King AC. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin SecretionThe DIETFITS Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA. 2018;319(7):667–679. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.0245

Leeman Taylor
B.S. Criminal Justice

Weight Loss Has ‘Ripple Effect’ On Partner

Weight loss can be tough for anyone just starting out especially if you are alone and/or have genetic predispositions to obesity. However, working out with a partner is good for motivation and can increase your chances of success, but only if the both of you are committed.

 

Couple Workout

A new study found that weight loss has a ‘ripple effect’ on your parnter. Photo by Fitness Republic

A team of researchers from the University of Connecticut conducted a new study which found that losing weight has a ‘ripple effect’ on your significant other. In other words, if you are fully committed to losing weight then your partner will too. Conversely, if you are struggling with weight loss, your partner will also have the same outcome.

During the study that included 130 overweight or obese couples age 25 or order, researchers discovered when one member of a couple lost weight, it greatly raised the probability that the other partner would too — even if that partner was not actively participating in any weight loss program. Likewise, when one partner struggled to trim down, it made it more likely for the other person to have problems as well. Amy Gorin, a professor of behavioral psychology at the University of Connecticut and the lead author of a new study on these impacts, calls this the “ripple effect.”

Gorin put the couples into two groups. In one group, one partner joined Weight Watchers in which they received personal counseling and online tools to help them lose weight for six months. The partner in the other group only got a handout on exercise, healthy eating and weight management strategies.

After six months, over 33 percent of the untreated partners lost 3 percent or more of their beginning body weight, a number that dieticians regard as a sizeable benefit. These individuals did not participate in any weight loss program at all; only their partners.

With that being said, it does not matter if the partner who is trying to lose weight joins a weight loss program or not, as long as they are trying to lose weight is what counts. The main point is that anyone trying to lose weight, no matter what approach is taken, can benefit others in their lives.

Source: Gorin, A. A., Lenz, E. M., Cornelius, T., Huedo-Medina, T., Wojtanowski, A. C. and Foster, G. D. (2018), Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Ripple Effect of a Nationally Available Weight Management Program on Untreated Spouses. Obesity. doi:10.1002/oby.22098

Leeman Taylor
B.S. Criminal Justice

Cinnamon May Fight Obesity

Cinnamon is a sweet spice that most of us enjoy and the fact that it may help fight obesity just makes it even better.

Cinnamon

An essential oil in cinnamon attacks fat cells and could be used as a treatment to fight obesity, according to new study. Photo by Medical News Today

According to a new study published in the journal Metabolism, an essential oil found in cinnamon attacks fat cells and could be used to fight obesity.

Researchers from the University of Michigan found that the oil cinnamaldehyde boosts metabolic health by causing fat cells to start burning energy — a process called thermogenesis.

“Cinnamon has been part of our diets for thousands of years, and people generally enjoy it,” said Jun Wu, a research assistant professor at UM’s Life Sciences Institute. “So if it can help protect against obesity, too, it may offer an approach to metabolic health that is easier for patients to adhere to.”

I believe that too much of anything is not good for you especially when we are talking about sugar and spices. I do agree that if a spice like cinnamon has the potential to help you lose weight, it will not hurt to add it to your diet in moderation if you really enjoy it.

Cinnamaldehyde is what gives cinnamon its flavor.

The research reflects off cinnamaldehyde studies in mice, where the oil fought against obesity.

The new study, published in the December issue of the journal Metabolism, tested whether the same effect would happen in humans.

Using fat cells from volunteers, researchers treated the cells — called adipocytes — with cinnamaldehyde. The results found an “increased expression” of genes and enzymes that boost metabolism while increasing proteins beneficial to thermogenesis.

Wu suggests cinnamaldehyde could be used to fight obesity by way of activating thermogenesis. But she held off on endorsing cinnamon as a weight-loss treatment until further study is done.

More research is needed to discover cinnamaldehyde’s benefits and side effects.

Source: Jiang, Juan et al “Cinnamaldehyde induces fat cell-autonomous thermogenesis and metabolic reprogramming” Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental, Volume 77, 58 – 64

Leeman Taylor
B.S. Criminal Justice

Weight-Loss Surgery Linked to Lasting Gastro Issues

Although weight-loss surgery can help obese people reduce extra pounds, a new study says the procedure may also cause long-lasting stomach issues for a lot of patients.

Gastric Bypass

A Dutch research study found that individuals who underwent the most common type of weight-loss surgery – known as laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass – suffered gastrointestinal issues and food intolerance up to two years after the surgery. Photo by Lourdes.com

A Dutch research study found that individuals who underwent the most common type of weight-loss surgery – known as laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass – suffered gastrointestinal issues and food intolerance up to two years after the surgery.

The procedure involves stapling the tummy and re-routing the intestines, so what is consumed bypasses the majority of the stomach and caloric consumption is decreased.

However, these issues are not likely to be restricted to this type of weight-loss surgery alone, said study author Dr. Thomas Boerlage. He is a researcher in the department of internal medicine at MC Slotervaart, in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands.

“I would very much expect other bariatric [weight-loss] procedures to [cause] gastrointestinal complaints, too,” Boerlage cautioned. He said that gastric banding, along with newer types of weight-loss options, are “fairly certain” to spark long-term gastrointestinal complications. This gives me reason to believe that any procedure that deals with the stomach will most certainly cause lasting gastro issues.

Boerlage also mentioned that “it was already known from previous studies that patients can develop gastrointestinal complaints after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, most of those studies concerned only the first year after surgery, and you can imagine that people might have complaints shortly after surgery, whatever kind of surgery it is.”

To exam the risk of long-term gastrointestinal issues, Boerlage’s team focused on the experience of almost 250 patients who had the surgery in 2012. They all completed a food tolerance and gastrointestinal survey two years after having the operation. The patients’ answers were compared to 295 obese patients who did not have the procedure.

For the most part, the weight-loss surgery patients were found to be battling with significantly more gastrointestinal problems at the two-year mark that those who had not undergone the operation, the investigators found.

For instance, surgery patients were found to be struggling with more indigestion, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation, compared with the non-surgical group. Surgery patients did, however report lesser levels of both acid regurgitation and hunger pain, compared with non-surgical patients. This is a surprise to me because usually patients who undergo surgery would seem to have higher levels of hunger pains and acid problems than non-surgical patients.

In relation to food intolerance, 70 percent of surgery patients said they experienced some form of intolerance to an average of four different foods, and more than 90 percent said the problem emerged only after the procedure.

According to the report, problematic foods included red meats and items that contained high amounts of fat or sugar, such as cakes, pies, sodas, fried foods and pastries

With that being said, only about 14 percent of those having ongoing lasting food intolerance said the problem bothered them “much” or “very much”

However, less than 17 percent of the non-surgical group reported experiencing any comparable form of eating issue.

These findings were reported in the December issue of British Journal of Surgery.

So what can bypass patients do?

“In general, it is advisable for patients to stick tightly to the dietary guidelines that are given after surgery,” said Boerlage. “This will surely help to alleviate symptoms, although not all symptoms can be prevented,” he added.

“We do advise our patients to avoid certain foods with a high sugar or fat content. And, indeed, these are the types of food that are a problem in obese patients in the first place. So, in a way you could say that these complaints are also useful because they remind patients to avoid certain foods,” Boerlage suggested.

I agree with Boerlage and the problem can be easily fixed if patients stick to the recommended dietary guidelines. I believe weight-loss surgery is a lifesaver for many and the benefits clearly outweigh any dietary issues.

Source: Thomas Boerlage, M.D., doctoral candidate, resident and researcher, department of internal medicine, MC Slotervaart, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Dec. 19, 2016, British Journal of Surgery

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer

Obesity Gene Does Not Affect Weight Loss

The so-called “obesity gene” does not affect people’s ability to lose weight through diet, exercise and weight-loss medications, a new study says.

Obesity Gene

You can still lose weight even you carry the FTO gene. Photo by Newsmax

I know this is shocking to many individuals who are overweight because losing weight can be very difficult so you would think that an obesity related gene would slow down your weight loss.

British researchers reported that individuals with the FTO gene respond to these weight-loss strategies as well as those who do not have the gene. According to the study authors, the FTO gene is related to increased body weight and the study mentions that a person’s environment may play a bigger part in their weight management than DNA.

This means that regardless of the obesity related gene, you can still lose weight just like the individuals who do not have the gene. This is great news for all the overweight individuals who had doubts about weight loss because of carrying the FTO gene.

The trial included nearly 10,000 individuals who were analyzed by researchers to find the relationship between the FTO gene and weight loss plans.

At the beginning of the study, the ones who had the FTO gene were about 2 pounds heavier than those who did not carry the gene. However, there was no relation between FTO gene and the individuals’ ability to lose weight.

These findings were true despite the participants’ gender, age, the weight loss strategies they followed and other variables, said researchers.

These findings were published Sept. 20 in BMJ.

According to the National Institutes of Health, approximately 70 percent of adults in America are overweight or obese. This is definitely a global health crisis and researchers say the only way to stop this epidemic is to help people find ways to live healthier.

It seems that improving your eating habits and getting regular physical activity is the most common strategy of long term weight loss, regardless if you have obesity related genes or not.

Source: BMJ, news release, Sept. 20, 2016

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer

Pasta May Be Good for Your Diet After All

Pasta has always been regarded as bad for you if you eat too much of it but a new Italian study says it may actually help you lose weight.

Pasta Diet

Pasta may help fight obesity and be a good diet choice after all, according to Italian study. Photo by Pasta For All

After analyzing data on thousands of Italians, eating pasta moderately looks to lower the risks of general and abdominal obesity. I love pasta but I try to eat it in moderation and make my meals as healthy as possible. For instance, I use whole grain noodles instead of regular noodles that have no nutritional value.

“Our data show that enjoying pasta according to individuals’ needs contributes to a healthy body mass index, lower waist circumference and better waist-hip ratio,” said George Pounis, first author of the study. Past studies would say that pasta is fattening and should be avoided if you are trying to lose weight so this finding is completely opposite.

“We have seen that consumption of pasta, contrary to what many think, is not associated with an increase in body weight, rather the opposite,” Pounis added in a journal news release.

Pasta is a part of the Mediterranean Diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, beans, peas, olive oil, grains, fish and poultry. This is my type of diet and it is one that I can stick to so it has been working well for me lately.

Pounis and his colleagues at IRCCS Neuromed in Pozzilli, Italy, reviewed results of two large studies including more than 23,000 Italians. One was the Moli-sani Project, which involved citizens living in the Molise region — a little more than halfway down the boot. The other was the Italian Nutrition and Health Survey, which focuses on eating habits in all Italian regions.

The study did not mention how much pasta you can consume without getting fat. However, it did say that over eating pasta will make you fat.

“The obese population was older and at lower socioeconomic status, had higher waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio, and consumed more pasta [grams per day] than normal or overweight participants,” wrote lead author Licia Iacoviello and colleagues, according to CNN.

After learning that eating pasta in moderation may actually help you lose weight, I believe that the Mediterranean diet is a good health choice for your diet.

Source: Pounis, G. “Association of pasta consumption with body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: results from Moli-sani and INHES studies” Nutrition & Diabetes 4 July 2016

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer

Weight-Loss Surgery May Boost Survival

Weight loss surgery may greatly reduce obese people’s risk of premature death, a new study says.

Gastric Bypass Weight Loss Surgery

Weight loss surgery may boost survival for obese, says study. Photo by Healthy Hippie

Nearly five years after surgery, the death rate was over one percent for the individuals who had weight loss surgery and four percent for those in the non-surgical group, according to researchers.

The study was led by Christina Persson from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, who analyzed data from almost 49,000 obese people in Sweden. They were between 18 and 74 years of age.

Over 22,000 people had weight-loss surgery between 2000 and 2011. About 93 percent of the people in the surgery group had the procedure known as gastric bypass. The study compared them with approximately 26,000 people who did not have surgery.

According to the research, the overall death rate was reduced by 57 percent in the surgery group, compared to the non-surgery group. This number remained consistent after researchers adjusted for age and other previous diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease.

Heart disease, cancer, suicide and accidents were the most common causes of death among those who did not have the surgery.

Cancer and heart disease accounted for most of the major difference in mortality rates between obese people who underwent weight-loss surgery and those who did not, says researchers.

Losing weight is not easy for anyone overweight so undergoing weight loss surgery should be recommended by doctors or health care providers. A death rate that is decreased by about 60 percent is amazing and I believe more obese people should consider having gastric bypass surgery to increase his or her survival.

According to the CDC, over one-third of adults in the U.S. are obese, so this is a very serious issue. There is no overnight success or magic pill that will make you lose weight so it really does take hard work and dedication.

The study was set to be presented Thursday at the European Obesity Summit. Findings presented at meetings are usually viewed as preliminary until they have been published in peer-reviewed journals.

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer
Source: European Obesity Summit, news release, June 2, 2016

‘Biggest Loser’ Study Reveals Struggle After Weight Loss

Everyone knows how difficult it is to lose weight if you have ever been on a diet. More important, once you do have weight loss success, keeping the weight off is another struggle. A recent study involving contestants from TV show “The Biggest Loser” demonstrates what really happens after weight loss.

Biggest Loser - Weight Loss

‘Biggest Loser’ study shows how difficult it is to keep the weight off, years later. Photo by Reality Tea

In the study, all but one contestant had regained at least some of the weight lost after six years, during the 30-week TV competition, according to Obesity.  The participants had regained about 90 pounds or 70 percent of the weight they lost. This just demonstrates how hard it is to fight obesity and maintain a healthy weight, even with a competition that has incentives.

There is no magic pill or formula for fat loss but here are a few answers to questions for people who are struggling with weight loss:

If you lose weight slowly, are you more likely to maintain weight loss?

Although many dieters get this advice, studies have shown otherwise including a recent Australian study. In this study, 204 obese people were instructed on live on 450 to 800 calories a day for 3 months, or limit themselves to 400 to 500 calories a day for 36 weeks. The overall goal was a 15 percent weight loss. After three years, almost everyone regained the weight they had lost, regardless of the counseling on diet and exercise. There was no change in the levels of the two hormones, ghrelin and leptin, which increases hunger. More individuals in the rapid weight loss group did lose at least 12 percent of their weight (80 percent, compared to 50 percent in the slow loss group) and fewer called it quits (3 percent, compared to 18 percent).

Will you maintain a higher metabolism if you build muscle through exercise, such as weight lifting?

Muscle does burn more calories than fat, so you may think that the more muscle you have, the faster you will burn calories. In fact, a study showed that building muscle has nearly no effect on resting metabolism, which is the amount of calories a person burns while at rest. According to the study, the muscle we build is small compared to the total amount of skeletal muscle on our body. This muscle is at rest most of the time and no one can go around and flex their muscles all day.

Should you avoid snacks to maintain weight loss?

Even though it seems that snacking packs on the extra pounds, studies that randomly assigned individuals to snack or not have not confirmed this, and even studies that observed people have not found that snacks undermine fat loss.

Is there a certain type of diet that keeps weight off?

Many individuals are convinced that low fat or low carb diets are the best for weight loss. However, Dr. Lee Kaplan, an obesity researcher at Harvard, says that there is no weight loss program or diet that is guaranteed to work but that individuals can often keep a loss of 5 percent of their weight, which comes with many health benefits. He tells his patients to try different weight loss programs until they find one that works for them.

Will doing vigorous cardiovascular exercises after weight loss speed up your body’s slowed metabolism?

As long as you are not consuming more calories than you burn you are okay. Although this sounds like a simple task, “this is not as easy a proposition as it sounds,” says Dr. Michael Rosenbaum, a doctor and obesity researcher at Columbia University. The brain controls your hunger and your food cravings, and it is very easy to accidentally consume more calories than you burned exercising. That is a major reason studies that use exercise alone to help individuals lose weight have usually failed to find an effect. Did you know that after you lose 10 percent of your weight by diet alone, your muscles begin using genes that make them more efficient? They actually burn 20 to 30 percent fewer calories for the exact exercise.

Is there hope for weight maintenance?

Do not let this Obesity study discourage you if you are currently overweight or obese. This research is just to show you that anyone can be treated if they seek help sooner and start now. Weight loss is a lifelong process that includes proper dieting, daily physical activity, counseling, medication or even surgery. The best option is to consult with your physician about a weight loss plan that fits you and start your journey for a healthier life today!

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer

Source: Fothergill, E., Guo, J., Howard, L., Kerns, J. C., Knuth, N. D., Brychta, R., Chen, K. Y., Skarulis, M. C., Walter, M., Walter, P. J. and Hall, K. D. (2016), “Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21538 May 2 2016  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.21538/full

Kolata, G. “Short Questions to Hard Answers about Weight Loss” The New York Times May 4 2016 www.nytimes.com

Small Weight Loss Has Big Health Benefits

Obese people who lose just 5 percent of their body weight can reduce the risk of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes and increase their metabolic function, says a new study.

Small Weight Loss

Losing 5 percent of your body weight has reasonable health benefits, study says. Photo by New Pittsburgh Courier

There are many current treatment guidelines that recommend patients lose about 5 to 10 percent of their body weight in order to receive health benefits, but the recommendations were focused on prior studies that did not differentiate between individuals who lost only 5 percent of their body weight and those who lost more weight.

In this study, 40 obese individuals with signs of insulin resistance were randomized to either go on a low calorie diet to lose 5, 10 or 15 percent of their body weight or just maintain their body weight. According to the journal Cell Metabolism, the study found that 5 percent weight loss was enough to lower multiple risk factors for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. To put this in perspective, a 200-pound individual could lose just 10 pounds to improve their health profile. This is more encouraging in my opinion because it’s a realistic goal and it is much easier to achieve than losing 10 percent of that 200 pounds.

“Even though five percent weight loss may not have dramatic cosmetic benefits, it does have significant health benefits,” said the study’s author, Dr. Samuel Klein, director of the Center for Human Nutrition at Washington University School of Medicine. “You’re much healthier on the inside, and it’s a really reasonable and legitimate target for people with obesity.”

This study should be a reminder to obese people that a 5 percent weight loss is really a success and not a failure. Diet and exercise can be difficult for any individual overweight and when you do not see any immediate physical changes, you may feel discouraged. This study is a good example to remind you that you are actually fighting diseases and improving your overall health by losing a little weight.

Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. Taking short walks and making small changes to your diet is a good way to start weight loss to improve your health today.

“Our findings show that even a small amount of weight loss has important health benefits for multiple organ systems,” Klein said. “We hope that these findings will encourage obese people to take reasonable steps to watch what they eat and increase their physical activity, because this will translate into a lower risk for diabetes and heart disease.”

To say the least, some weight loss is better than no weight loss at all or even making an honest effort. Just because you don’t see instant physical results it does not mean you are not becoming healthier inside. Losing just 5 percent of your body weight is really a success so this should be encouragement to keep losing weight and receiving the nice health benefits that come along with it.

Leeman Taylor
Bachelor Degree in Criminal Justice
Real Estate Investor & Internet Marketer

Source: Magkos, Faidon et al. “Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity” Cell Metabolism 22 February 2016